Below are the chapter 2 notes for IT2, which is the lab procedure / tool usage chapter.
LAB PROCEDURE / TOOL USE
AS WELL AS
GENERAL IT2 NOTES (CONTD. PART 2 & 3)
AS WELL AS
GENERAL IT2 NOTES (CONTD. PART 2 & 3)
Basic Safety Guidelines & Information
# General Safety Rules / Electric Safety Tips
- Remove your watch and jewelry and secure loose clothing.
- Turn off the power and unplug equipment before performing service.
- Cover sharp edges inside the computer case with tape.
- Never open a power supply or a CRT monitors.
- Do not touch areas in printers that are hot or that use high voltage.
- Know where the fire extinguisher is located and how to use it.
- Keep food and drinks out of your workspace.
- Keep your workspace clean and free of clutter.
- Bend your knees when lifting heavy objects to avoid injuring your back.
- Do not wear the antistatic wrist strap when repairing power supplies or CRT monitors. Only experienced technicians should attempt to repair power supplies and CRT monitors.
- Check the printer manual for the location of high-voltage components. Some components retain a high voltage even after the printer is turned off. Make sure that the printer has had time to cool before making the repair.
- AC adapters are manufactured for specific laptops. Exchanging AC adapters with a different type of laptop or device may cause damage to both the AC adapter and the laptop.
# Fire Rules & Handling
- Never fight a fire that is out of control or not contained.
- Always have a planned fire escape route before beginning any work.
- Get out of the building quickly.
- Contact emergency services for help.
- Locate and read the instructions on the fire extinguishers in your workplace before you have to use them.
Each type of fire extinguisher has specific chemicals to fight different types of fires:
- Paper, wood, plastics, cardboard
- Gasoline, kerosene, organic solvents
- Electrical equipment
- Combustible metals
Use the memory aid P-A-S-S to remember the basic rules of fire extinguisher operation:
- P - Pull the pin.
- A - Aim at the base of the fire, not at the flames.
- S - Squeeze the lever.
- S - Sweep the nozzle from side to side.
ESD and EMI
# ESD and EMI General Information
- At least 3,000 volts of static electricity must build up before a person can feel ESD.
- Less than 30 volts of static electricity can damage a computer component.
ESD can cause permanent damage to electrical components. Follow these recommendations to help prevent ESD damage:
- Keep all components in antistatic bags until you are ready to install them.
- Use grounded mats on workbenches.
- Use grounded floor mats in work areas.
- Use antistatic wrist straps when working on computers.
# Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is the intrusion of outside electromagnetic signals in a transmission media, such as copper cabling. In a network environment, EMI distorts the signals so that the receiving devices have difficulty interpreting them.
There are many sources of EMI:
- Any source designed to generate electromagnetic energy.
- Man-made sources like power lines or motors.
- Natural events such as electrical storms, or solar and interstellar radiations.
Climate affects computer equipment in a variety of ways:
- If the environment temperature is too high, equipment can overheat.
- If the humidity level is too low, the chance of ESD increases.
- If the humidity level is too high, equipment can suffer from moisture damage.
Procedures to Protect Equipment from Damage
Voltage is a measure of work required to move a charge from one location to another. The movement of electrons is called current. Computer circuits need voltage and current to operate electronic components. When the voltage in a computer is not accurate or steady, computer components might not operate correctly. Unsteady voltages are called power fluctuations.
The following types of AC power fluctuations can cause data loss or hardware failure:
- Blackout - Complete loss of AC power. A blown fuse, damaged transformer, or downed power line can cause a blackout.
- Brownout - Reduced voltage level of AC power that lasts for a period of time. Brownouts occur when the power line voltage drops below 80 percent of the normal voltage level. Overloading electrical circuits can cause a brownout.
- Noise - Interference from generators and lightning. Noise results in poor quality power, which can cause errors in a computer system.
- Spike - Sudden increase in voltage that lasts for a short period and exceeds 100 percent of the normal voltage on a line. Spikes can be caused by lightning strikes, but can also occur when the electrical system comes back on after a blackout.
- Surge - Dramatic increase in voltage above the normal flow of electrical current. A power surge lasts for a few nanoseconds, or one-billionth of a second.
To help shield against problems, use devices to protect the data and computer equipment:
- Surge suppressor - Helps protect against damage from surges and spikes. A surge suppressor diverts extra electrical voltage that is on the line to the ground.
- Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) - Helps protect against potential electrical power problems by supplying a consistent level of electrical power to a computer or other device. The battery is constantly recharging while the UPS is in use.
- Standby power supply (SPS) - Helps protect against potential electrical power problems by providing a backup battery to supply power when the incoming voltage drops below the normal level. The battery is on standby during normal operation. This device is not as reliable as a UPS because of the time it takes to switch over to the battery. If the switching device fails, the battery cannot supply power to the computer
- Inline Power Supply (IPS) – Only charges the battery.
- Don’t use UPS’s for printers as it can overload the printer.
Procedures to Protect the Environment
Computers and peripherals contain materials that can be harmful to the environment. A Material Safety and Data Sheet (MSDS) is a fact sheet that summarizes information about material identification, including hazardous ingredients that can affect personal health, fire hazards, and first-aid requirements. The MSDS contains chemical reactivity and incompatibility information. It also includes protective measures for the safe handling and storage of materials and spill, leak, and disposal procedures.
NOTE: The MSDS is valuable in determining how to dispose of potentially hazardous materials in the safest manner. Always check local regulations concerning acceptable disposal methods before disposing of any electronic equipment.
The MSDS contains valuable information:
- Name of the material
- Physical properties of the material
- Hazardous ingredients contained in the material
- Reactivity data, such as fire and explosion data
- Procedures for spills and leaks
- Special precautions
- Health hazards
- Special protection requirements
This chapter discussed safe lab procedures, correct tool usage, and the proper disposal of computer components and supplies. You have familiarized yourself in the lab with many of the tools used to build, service, and clean computer and electronic components. You have also learned the importance of organizational tools and how these tools help you work more efficiently.
Some of the important concepts to remember from this chapter:
- Work in a safe manner to protect users and equipment.
- Follow all safety guidelines to prevent injuries to yourself and others.
- Know how to protect equipment from ESD damage.
- Know about and be able to prevent power issues that can cause equipment damage or data loss.
- Know which products and supplies require special disposal procedures.
- Familiarize yourself with the MSDS for safety issues and disposal restrictions to help protect the environment.
- Be able to use the correct tools for the task.
- Know how to clean components safely.
- Use organizational tools during computer repairs.
- Checks HDD for errors and fixes it (/F).
- Rearranged non-aligned files so they are together.
- Cleans unused files (temp/web)
SYSTEM FILE CHECKER:
- Scans PCs System Files and replaces corrupt files.
- 1: Initialize Disk
- 2: Create Partitions
- 3: Create Volumes
- 4: Format
- Antistatic Mat
- Antistatic Wrist Strap
- Touch Unpainted Metal
- Antistatic Bags
Use a Hex screw driver to open it.
Use a Phillips screw driver.
Microwaves affect Wi-Fi as well as wireless phones / cellphones.
- Striping w/ no Redundancy
- High Performance
- High Performance
- High Protection
- Striping w/ Parity
- Rebuilt from remaining drives.
PS/2 - 6 pin mini DIV
eSATA - External Hard Drives
Serial - Transmits 1 bits at a time. Uses DB9/DB25.
Parallel - Transmits 8 bits at a time. Uses IEEE 1284.
SCSI - Used for HDD & Optical Drive. Supports up to 15 devices. End of the cable must be terminated if not in use.
CHAPTER 2 PART 2
- Form Factor
- AT/ATX is popular.
- Expansion considered.
6 Color Cables
- White: -5
- Black: -0
- Red: +5
- Orange: +3.3
- Blue: +12
- Yellow: -12
- Molex HDD, Optical (Older)
- SATA HDD, Optical (Newer)
- BERG Floppy Drives
- Main Power 20/24 PIN (Motherboard)
- Aux Pin 4/8 PIN (CPU Power)
- PCI-e 6/8 PIN (Video Cards)
Motherboard / CPU
Motherboards are identified by form factor:
- AT, ATX, miniATX, microATX (Largest to smallest)
Two types of CPU sockets:
- PGA (Pin Grid Array) Pins on Processor FM2+
- LGA (Land Grid Array) Pins in Socket (MB) LGA1150
RAM & RAM TYPES
RAM: Random Access Memory
ROM: Read Only Memory
SDRAM: Synchronous Dynamic Ram
PROM: Programmable ROM
EPROM: Erasable PROM
EEPROM: Electrically EPROM
RAM Data Rate
- SIMM Single Inline Memory Module
- DIMM Double Inline Memory Module
- SO-DIMM Small Outline DIMM
Adapter Cards Expansion Slots: - PCI (32 Bit / 64 Bit), PCI-e (1x, 4x, 7x, 16x) Adapter Cards: - Wi-Fi, NIC, Sound, Video, USB, Serial Optical Drive: - CDs - DVD - BluRay o CD-ROM – Read Only @ 700 MB o CD-RW - Rewritable o CD-R – Recordable (once) o DVD-ROM – Read only @ Bigger, High Capacity. 4.7 GB. Single/Dual Layer (9.4GB) o DVD-R – Recordable (once) o DVD+R – Recordable (once) o DVD-RW – Rewritable o DVD+RW – Rewritable o BD-ROM – Read Only Single 25GB / Dual Layer 50GB o BD-R – Recordable (once) o BD-RE – Rewritable Units of Measure - Bit - Nibble - Byte - Kilobyte - Megabytes - Gigabyte - Terabyte - Petabyte - Exabyte - Zettabyte - Yottabyte o Single ‘1’ or ‘0’ (B) o 4 bits (B) o 8 bits (B) o 1024 bytes (KB) o 1024 kilobytes (MB) (1995 HDDs Low MB) o 1024 megabytes (GB) o 1024 Gigabytes (TB) (2015 HDD Low TB) o 1024 Terabytes (PB) o 1024 Petabytes (EB) (2035 HDD?) o 1024 Exabyte (ZB) o 1024 Zettabyte (YB)
Internal Cables - Power - FDD - HDD o Data “Ribbon Cable” 34 Pins o Data o OLD style used Ribbon 40/80 pins o NEW style used SATA
External Ports - USB - Audio - NIC / Video (VGA/DVI/HDMI/mini HDMI/DB-15/Display Port) - Serial (DB-9) - Parallel (DB-25) - Firewire - PS/2 - S/PDIF Output Devices - Printer - Monitor - Speaker - Fax Input Devices - Mouse - Keyboard - Camera - Microphone - Scanner - Biometric Device - Touchscreen