Tuesday, March 29, 2016

CCNAv2 Completed Packet Tracer 8.2.4.5 w/ Tutorial

Greetings, and welcome to CCNA.
In this packet tracer, we must configure out own network. This activity comes with no PKT file, which implies we have to build our own Packet Tracer Network!
So, according to the diagram, we have three routers and three PCs. Our first step will be placing these on the Packet Tracer Activity...

Here is a download to the completed lab packet tracer, it only is configured with OSPF and is fully functional. 

PT Download

Initial Configuration
Cisco's Required Devices for Topology:
      • 3 Routers (Cisco 1941)
      • 3 PCs
      • Console cables to configure the Cisco IOS devices via the console ports
      • Ethernet and serial cables as shown in the topology

Steps for this process:
1) Place three 1941 Routers in a triangular pattern.
2) Place three PCs, one for each router.
Then, since these routers do not meet our required ports...
1) Go into one of the routers, turn it off, and add the "HWIC-2T" module.
Repeat this step for all routers.
2) Connect the routers to each other via the correct port.
3) Connect the PCs to their respective router via the correct port.
4) Rename each device with it's appropriate name. (R1, R2, R3.. PC-A, PC-B, PC-C)
Verify that your topology matches either as shown below or on the PDF file.

This is how your layout should look right now.


Now, scroll down in the PDF to the Addressing Table.
We're going to configure some things, but first, we must keep in mind of Cisco's rules, as follows.

Cisco's Lab Requirements:
a. Disable DNS lookup.
b. Configure device name as shown in the topology.
c. DO NOT Assign class as the privileged EXEC password.
d. DO NOT Assign cisco as the console and vty passwords.
e. Configure a message of the day (MOTD) banner to warn users that unauthorized access is prohibited.
f. Configure logging synchronous for the console line.
g. Configure the IP address listed in the Addressing Table for all interfaces.
h. Set the clock rate for all DCE serial interfaces at 128000.
i. Copy the running configuration to the startup configuration.

Our first step of actual configuring is to configure R1 with the appropriate addressing, again, as per the address table.
So, we need to configure our defaults such as hostname. Then, our G0/0 interface to our PC, with additional configuration for our Serial connections, which again must be configured with clock rate and so forth:

Router>en
Router#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#hostname R1
R1(config)#int g0/0
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#no sh

R1(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface GigabitEthernet0/0, changed state to up

Configure S0/0/0 with an address and clock-rate...
R1(config-if)#ex
R1(config)#int s0/0/0
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.12.1 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)#clock rate 128000

So, go to our next interface from the same router...
R1(config-if)#int s0/0/1
R1(config-if)#ip add 192.168.13.1 255.255.255.252
R1(config-if)#no sh

Go back to s0/0/0 and "no sh" the interface.
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/1, changed state to down
R1(config-if)#int s0/0/0
R1(config-if)#no sh

Now, we're going to go back to our topology. Notice how the PCs are connected via Copper Straight-through, yet still appear to be down, even with an assigned address and "no sh"? Right, that means something went wrong, so what we're going to do is change Straight-through to Crossover, which should then change the "LED Status" from the PC to the Router to GREEN/UP.
For some reason, auto-sense is disabled or incorrect between the router and the PC. Make sure when you use crossover you use "no sh" to prevent any issues later on.
Your 

At this point, all lines from the PCs should be down except PC-As, which we will now fix by configuring out next router. I chose Router 2 (R2), but you may pick another if you'd like.
This is how your topology should look like as of now.


Give our router the basic configuration addressing. We will return to configure the other basics, such as banner MOTDs or passwords, but for now we're exclusively making our addressing scheme work:

Router>en
Router#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line.  End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#hostname R2
R2(config)#int g0/0
R2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#no sh
R2(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface GigabitEthernet0/0, changed state to up

Now, we must configure our serial connection for R2.

R2(config-if)#ex
R2(config)#int s0/0/0
R2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.12.2 255.255.255.252
R2(config-if)#no sh

And then for our other serial connection, out of S0/0/1. Remeber, this interface is our interface where clock-rate will need to be configured.

R2(config-if)#ex
R2(config)#int s0/0/1
R2(config-if)#ip add 192.168.23.1 255.255.255.252
R2(config-if)#clock rate 128000
R2(config-if)#no sh
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/1, changed state to down

We are now done with that part for R2, close the configuration window. You should have green lights (LEDs) from R2's S0/0/0 and G0/0 port, as well as green light/LEDs from R1's S0/0/0 and G0/0 ports. If they are not like this, reconfigure and check your steps.

If you are successful in your current progress, resume and go to R3 for configuring.

Router>
Router>en
Router#conf t
Router#hostname R3
R3(config)#int g0/0
R3(config-if)#ip add 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0
R3(config-if)#no sh
R3(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface GigabitEthernet0/0, changed state to up
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface GigabitEthernet0/0, changed state to up
ex (<--- this is a command that got cut by the output)

Again, this port is our DCE ClockRate Serial connection, so we must configure it as so, as we have done before:
R3(config)#int s0/0/0
R3(config-if)#ip add 192.168.13.2 255.255.255.252
R3(config-if)#clock rate 128000
R3(config-if)#no sh
R3(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to up
%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to up

As well as our non-clocked connection:
R3(config)#
R3(config)#int s0/0/1
R3(config-if)#ip add 192.168.23.2 255.255.255.252
R3(config-if)#no sh
R3(config-if)#
%LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Serial0/0/1, changed state to up

Okay, so after configuring as above, EVERYTHING should be working properly with good green LED indications for EVERY port on your topology. Nothing should be down, if it is, you incorrectly configured your packet tracer-- please go back and resume when you have fixed it.
Your PT should match this diagram is some way.

Resuming, we have to configure our PCs. Here is each configuration for all PCs.

PC-A's Desktop IP-Config:
IP: 192.168.1.3
SM: 255.255.255.0
DG: 192.168.1.1

PC-B's Desktop IP-Config:
IP: 192.168.2.3
SM: 255.255.255.0
DG: 192.168.2.1

PC-C's Desktop IP-Config:
IP: 192.168.3.3
SM: 255.255.255.0
DG: 192.168.3.1

Now that we've done most of our general configuration, lets start with OSPF! Yay!
So that Packet Tracer's PDF says we need to keep our "area" setting on OSPF to 0.
The PDF provides us with commands, so we end up with this as our configuration on R1:

On our R1, enter as follows to network our addresses:
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.12.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
R1(config-router)#network 192.168.13.0 0.0.0.3 area 0

Apply the same process with R2:
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.12.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
R2(config-router)#network 192.168.23.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
00:31:33: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.168.13.1 on Serial0/0/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done

See that last message after the last #network configuration? I think we did something right!
Now, this means we're done configuring R2, so lets move onto R3 for our final configuration of this type:

R3(config)#router ospf 1
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.13.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
R3(config-router)#network 192.168.23.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
Inbetween configuring this I was cut off by the message we want to see (%OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.168.13.1 on Serial0/0/0...), indicating our route is up from that line. You should get two of these messages:
00:31:20: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.168.23.1 on Serial0/0/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done

00:33:57: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.168.23.2 on Serial0/0/1 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done
^ That's important information for any OSPF activity.

So, we're done with what we need to do with OSPF. Now we need to verify we did everything properly. Unsurprisingly, we need to use a show command, so go into R1 and enter this:

R1#show ip ospf neighbor
This command then yields this output, which should be correct:
Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
192.168.23.1      0   FULL/  -        00:00:30    192.168.12.2    Serial0/0/0
192.168.23.2      0   FULL/  -        00:00:38    192.168.13.2    Serial0/0/1

A cool little fact here that explains OSPF. See the address "192.168.12.2"? That comes from R2s S0/0/0! This means your neighboring rotue has worked correctly! But we still need to see our routes.
Enter "show ip route" on R1.
R1#show ip ospf neighbor


Neighbor ID     Pri   State           Dead Time   Address         Interface
192.168.23.1      0   FULL/  -        00:00:30    192.168.12.2    Serial0/0/0
192.168.23.2      0   FULL/  -        00:00:38    192.168.13.2    Serial0/0/1
(Hey, our table is there again! How about it...)

R1#show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
       i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
       * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
       P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set

     192.168.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C       192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0
L       192.168.1.1/32 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0
O    192.168.2.0/24 [110/65] via 192.168.12.2, 00:09:33, Serial0/0/0
O    192.168.3.0/24 [110/65] via 192.168.13.2, 00:06:56, Serial0/0/1
     192.168.12.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C       192.168.12.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
L       192.168.12.1/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
     192.168.13.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C       192.168.13.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L       192.168.13.1/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
     192.168.23.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
O       192.168.23.0/30 [110/128] via 192.168.13.2, 00:06:46, Serial0/0/1
=======
So this information shows us present routes within our router, and if you cross-check the addressing table with the route this provides, it seems to be correct.
Keep this information in mind! Lets go see what the other routers have to say about neighboring routes.

A question on the PDF file asks, "What command would you use to only see the OSPF routes in the routing table?". We already entered the command to answer this, which is "show ip route ospf", as shown above.

Related, using this command is how you can debug and test if you're configuring OSPF properly. If your router cannot see the neighbors (in this case there should be two), you are incorrectly configuring OSPF.

Adapted from the PDF, verbatim:
The show ip protocols command is a quick way to verify vital OSPF configuration information. This information includes the OSPF process ID, the router ID, networks the router is advertising, the neighbors the router is receiving updates from, and the default administrative distance, which is 110 for OSPF.

Enter "show ip ospf" on R1 to display this information:
R1#show ip ospf
 Routing Process "ospf 1" with ID 192.168.13.1
 Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
 Supports opaque LSA
 SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
 Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
 Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
 Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
 Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
 Number of areas in this router is 1. 1 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
 External flood list length 0
    Area BACKBONE(0)
        Number of interfaces in this area is 3
        Area has no authentication
        SPF algorithm executed 6 times
        Area ranges are
        Number of LSA 3. Checksum Sum 0x0207cc
        Number of opaque link LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x000000
        Number of DCbitless LSA 0
        Number of indication LSA 0
        Number of DoNotAge LSA 0
        Flood list length 0

So for the next few steps it's all general checking with "show this show that", I'm sure you can check yourself, so I'll move on to not bore you any further. We must now verify end-to-end connectivity. Go to PC-A and ping 192.168.2.3:

PC>ping 192.168.2.3

Pinging 192.168.2.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.
Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time=9ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time=6ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.3:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 3, Lost = 1 (25% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 9ms, Average = 5ms

PC>ping 192.168.2.3

Pinging 192.168.2.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time=17ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time=10ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.2.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.2.3:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:

Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 17ms, Average = 7ms

Again, in PC-A's command line, attempt to ping "192.168.3.3", you should get the following.
PC>ping 192.168.3.3

Pinging 192.168.3.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Request timed out.
Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=3ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=9ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.3.3:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 3, Lost = 1 (25% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 9ms, Average = 4ms

PC>ping 192.168.3.3

Pinging 192.168.3.3 with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=2ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=126
Reply from 192.168.3.3: bytes=32 time=3ms TTL=126

Ping statistics for 192.168.3.3:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 3ms, Average = 1ms

If you're only looking to do the OSPF Configuration, such as Packet Tracer Turnins for a working OSPF system, you are done. Verify  your network prior to submitting.

Okay, great, we've gotten our network to work, now what? We're nowhere near done! Now, we must configure OSPF to include "Router ID", which is used to uniquely identify the router in the OSPF routing domain, which is possible in one of three ways following precedence (in important order):

1) IP address configured with the router-id command, if present.
2) Highest IP address of any of the router's loopback addresses, if present.
3) Highest active IP address on any of the router's physical interfaces.

Because no Router IDs or loop-back interfaces have been configured on the three routers, the router-id is determined, by default, by the highest IP address of any active interface. Now, what we're going to have to do is drawn out into three parts, which means we will be doing all three of the options above.

As per instructions, we must assign an interface loopback address of 0 to R1. So, Assign an IP address to loopback 0 on R1:
R1(config)# interface lo0
R1(config-if)#ip add 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
R1(config-if)#no sh
R1(config-if)#end

Then, Assign IP addresses to Loopback 0 on R2 and R3. Use IP address 2.2.2.2/32 for R2 and 3.3.3.3/32 for R3.
R2 Loopback Configuration
R2(config)#int lo0
R2(config-if)#ip add 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255

R2(config-if)#end

R3 Loopback Configuration
R3(config)#int lo0
R3(config-if)#ip add 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.255

R3(config-if)#end

Save all configs on your routers by entering "wr" or the full-length command ("copy run start") to save progress. Save your packet tracer file now.


Save your packet tracer file prior to entering the reboot or even wr/copy run start cmd
IF YOU DO NOT SAVE YOUR WORK YOU WILL LOSE 
ALL PROGRESS MADE TO THE ROUTER YOU REBOOTED.

Now, from the PDF Instructions directly:
You must reload the routers in order to reset the router ID to the loopback address. Issue the reload command on all three routers. Press Enter to confirm the reload

Go to your router and enter this command:
R1#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm] 
...

R2#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]
...

R3#reload
Proceed with reload? [confirm]
...

Notice how your the routes/connections from each router you enter the reboot command go down from a previously green and solid up?


Finally, save the running configuration to the startup configuration on all three routers.
For the sake of time and length, I'm going to skip the show commands once again, the PDF does a wonderful job at explaining it. 

Assigning Router-IDs and Clearing R1's IP Process. 
R1#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
R1(config)#router ospf 1
R1(config-router)#router-id 11.11.11.11

R1#clear ip ospf process
Reset ALL OSPF processes? [no]: yes (you have to type this)

R1#
00:05:50: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.168.23.1 on Serial0/0/0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Adjacency forced to reset

00:05:50: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.168.23.1 on Serial0/0/0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached

00:05:50: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 3.3.3.3 on Serial0/0/1 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Adjacency forced to reset

00:05:50: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 3.3.3.3 on Serial0/0/1 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached


Now we would repeat this step for R2. 
R2>en
R2#conf t
R2(config)#router ospf 1
R2(config-router)#router-id 22.22.22.22
R2(config-router)#Reload or use "clear ip ospf process" command, for this to take effect

And so forth.
This is not the entire packet tracer, I know, but this is as far as you need for BASIC OSPF configuring. I will post the later and uncovered information when I get to it.








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