Wednesday, February 10, 2016

CCNAv1 Chapter 8 Notes - IP Addressing

Author's Note: Formatting of some of the tables on here might be broken, but for the most part it's alright.
Chapter 8     



IPV4 FORMATTING
128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
27 2 6 25 24 23 22 21 20 Toggle Subscript: Ctrl + .

27  = 8 bits.
20 = Network Portion IP Address

192.168.10.10
  • Blue: Network Portion IP Address (192.168.10)
  • Red: Host Portion (.10)

Default Subnet Masks
Class A
  • 255.0.0.0
Class B
  • 255.255.0.0
Class C
  • 255.255.255.0

Formatting THIS - TCP/IP Guide
Dotted Decimal
  • 255.255.0.0
  • { / “Slash” notation
  • { CIDR
    • / 16
Common Slash Notation - SN Refer to link above.
  • /24
    • 255.255.255.0
  • /25
    • 255.255.255.128
  • /26
    • 255.255.255.192
  • /27
    • 255.255.255.224
  • /28
    • 255.255.255.240
  • /29
    • 255.255.255.248
  • /30
    • 255.255.255.252
  • /31
    • 255.255.255.254
  • /32
    • 255.255.255.255
If:
  • 30 bit network,
    • 2 bit HOSTS (#Hosts)
  • 22 = 4 - 2 = [ 2 ]
    • Leaves with [ 2 ] usable hosts
AnDing
  • Used to figure out the network address of a host.
  • 1 AND 1 = 1
  • 0 AND 1 = 0
  • 0 AND 0 = 0
  • 1 AND 0 = 0

192.168.10.10 11000000.10101000.00001010.00001010
255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

IPv4:
Three types of messaging:
  • Unicast
    • 1 -> 1
  • Multicast
    • 1 -> group
  • Broadcast
    • 1 -> all
Two ways of assigning an IP address:
  • Static
    • Fields:
      • IP
      • SM
      • DGW
      • DNS
  • Dynamic (DHCP)
    • Dynamic requires the same information,
      • IP
      • SM
      • DGW
      • DNS
    • But it is assigned in the router.

Types of IPv4 Addresses:
  • Public
  • Private
  • Loopback
  • Link-local
  • Experimental




Classful and Classless

Classful And Classless Addressing Default SM Private IP Address
Class A: 1.0.0.0 -> 127.255.255.255 255.0.0.0 /8 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
Class B: 128.0.0.0 -> 191.255.255.255 255.255.0.0 /16 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
Class C: 192.0.0.0 -> 223.255.255.255 255.255.255.0 /24 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
** 4 Octets
** Each 0-255
Class D: 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255 (Multicast)
Class E: 240.0.0.0 - 255.255.255.255 (Experimental)

Examples:
Network Address Subnet Mask 1st Usable Last Useable Broadcast # Hosts
10.1.1.0 /24 10.1.1.1 1.1.1.254 10.1.1.255 8b -> 2^8 = 256
10.1.1.0 /25 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.126 10.1.1.127 7b -> 2^7 = 128
10.1.1.0 /26 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.62 10.1.1.63 6b -> 2^6 =  64
10.1.1.0 /27 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.30 10.1.1.31 5b -> 2^5 = 32

ISP
ISPs have the rights to one or more IP address blocks.
Examples, they might have [17.0.0.0 /16], which means they have 2^16ths of IP addresses (65,536) which they rent out to clients.
There are three Tiers of ISP providers.

Tiers of ISPs
Tier 1
  • National or International companies.
  • Directly connected to the internet backbone.
  • They deal with smaller Tier 2 companies.
Tier 2
  • Smaller
  • Deal with business customers
  • Provides DNS, small services like such.
Tier 3
  • Even smaller, usually local area. (City/Town/State/etc)
  • They deal with residential customers.

IPV4 & IPV6
IPv6: Why?
  • Running out of IPv4 addresses.








IPV6
  • 128 Bits
  • 8 Groups
Right now, IPv4 & IPv6 are coexisting through the use of three technologies.
  1. Dual-Stack
    1. Both IPv4 + IPv6 devices on the network.
  2. Tunneling
    1. Encapsulates IPV6 packets within IPV4 packets
  3. Translation
    1. IPV6 -> NAT -> IPV4

IPv6 is hexadecimal, which is Base16. (Base10 is decimal, Base2 is binary)
HEXADECIMAL
0
1 a. 8 groups hextet
2 b. each group requires 16 bits
3 c. each hex digit requires 4 bits
4
5 1 1 1 1 = 15 0 0 0 0
6 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 1
7 0 0 1 0
8 0 0 1 1
9 0 1 0 0
A
B
C
D
E
F

IPv6 Rules
  • Omit leading 0s
  • Omit hextet of 0s
  • Other hextets with all 0s become 0
    • 0000 -> 0

IPv6
  • Unicast
    • Uni >> 1 >> 1
  • Multicast
    • Multi >> 1 >> Group
  • Anycast
    • Assigned to multiple devices

2001:BCDA:1379:0000:0000:0000:1000:000
[GLOBAL PFX]    [SN ID][INTERFACE ID]


Similar to DHCP
SLAAC - Stateless Address Auto Configuration
EUI-64 - Extended Unique Defender
Uses MAC Address, first 24 bits

Link Local:
  • Dynamic
    • EUI-64
  • Static
    • Every Interface on the device gets the same one

  • All link-local addresses start with FE80

Multicast:
  • Assigned
    • Uses reserved multicast address
      • FF02::1
        • “All Nodes” Multicast
      • FF02::2
        • All Routers (Multicast) (Group)
  • Solicited Node
    • Only sent for units that match the last 24 bits of the global unicast address.

ICMP (IPV4/IPV6)
  • Host Confirmation
    • Echo Ping / Echo Reply
      • Multicast
  • Destination/Service
    • Source Notification
      • Unicast
  • Time Exceeded
    • IPV4
      • TTL
    • IPV6
      • Hop Count

  • Link-Local

  • Route Redirection
    • Notify hosts of better route








Which will be the correct option for formatting an IPV6 address
A: B: C:
  • Config + config + config +
  • Int S0/0/0 int s0/0/0 int s0/0/0
  • IPV6 Address 2001::1/64 ipv6 address 2001::1/64 ipv6 address 2001::1/64
  • no sh ipv6 unicast-routing no sh
  • exit exit exit
ipv6 unicast-routing
C is the answer.

Slash to Decimal
/27 = 255.255.255.224
/28 = 255.255.255.240
/30 = 255.255.255.253

ICMP Messages
  • Host Confirmation  
  • Destination / Source Unreachable  
  • Time Exceeded  
  • Route Redirection

Ping 127.0.0.1

  • IP Protocol Stacking
  • Is the host reachable

No comments:

Post a Comment

Feel free to comment if you have a question, commendation, or concern. We love to hear your feedback!

Please do not share links to external websites if it not relevant to discussion. We reserve our right to remove any content we deem advertising.